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December 2019 (published: 17.12.2019)
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The effect of convective energy supply on the infrared drying intensity of tomatoes
Dyachenko Eduard P., Aleksanyan Igor Yu., Razin Oleg A., Ivanova Maria I.
We studied the effect of convective energy supply on the intensity of infrared (IR) drying of tomatoes cut into slices. The objects used were Revizor and Slivka tomato varieties. The studies were carried out according to the full multi-factor multi-level plan. The specific productivity of the drying apparatus (the yield of the dried product from a unit of the surface area per unit time) was selected as the objective function characterizing the intensity of the process. The following factors were selected as the main factors affecting the objective function: initial humidity of tomato fruits wн, kg/kg; the initial thickness of the lobules hн, m; the density of the heat flux incident on one side of the lobule Еп, kW/m2; temperature Tв, К, and drying agent velocity v, m/s. It has been established that the introduction of forced convective energy supply into rational drying of tomato slices under rational conditions allows to increase the specific productivity of the process by a third and reduce the drying time of the product by 30%. Moreover, the intensification of the process occurs during the entire period of dehydration of the product. Rational modes of IR and IR convective drying have been developed, the functional dependences of the objective function on the main influencing factors are obtained. The dry product quality assessment was carried out according to organoleptic indicators in accordance with Standard 10 326-2003. It was established that the color of the samples obtained by the method of IR drying had a darker shade in comparison with the samples of IR convective drying. Foci on the surface of dry lobules obtained by IR drying were observed, which indicate the onset of destructive processes in the material. The use of forced convective energy supply allows to soften the conditions of moisture removal. The results obtained are applicable in designing apparatus for drying fruit and vegetable raw materials, simulating heat and mass transfer, and calculating the evolution of temperature fields in the process of infrared convective drying.
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Keywords: food preservation; infrared drying; drying method; heat and mass transfer; drying intensity; tomato
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