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March 2019 (published: 29.03.2019)
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Capsaicin extraction from hot pepper of Capsicum genus
Rudometova N.V., Kim I.S.
Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) contains capsaicin – potentially dangerous biologically active substance.The use of capsaicin in the manufacture of food products is prohibited.In E160cfood dye (paprika extract) capsaicin content should not exceed 250 mg/kg.In order to develop a method of capsaicin analysis the process of its isolation from hot pepper was studied. The effect of the extractant, the ratio of plant material and extractant, particle size, and pre-maceration of plant raw materialson the kinetics and the multiplicity of extraction of capsaicin were studied.Liquid extraction of capsaicin was carried out from the dried hot pepper with constant stirring and the ratio of plant material and the extractant from20:1 to 50:1.Methanol, ethanol, and their aqueous solutions were used as extractants.The extraction efficiency was assessed by the content of total extractives and capsaicin.Analysis of the extracts was carried out by the methods of spectrophotometry and by high performance thin layer and liquid chromatography.The study of the extraction kinetics showed that the time to establish the equilibrium concentration of capsaicin does not depend on the type of extractant, and the ratio of plant material and extractant.Grinding the raw material to a particle size of less than 2 mm reduces the equilibrium time to 60 minutes.To achieve 99% yield of capsaicin five extraction steps are necessary.Grinding of raw materials to a particle size of less than 1 mm is not advisable.It does not reduce the extraction time and makes it difficult to filter the extracts.Pre-maceration of raw materials in water with ultrasonic exposure for 1 hour at the hydro-module of 1:5 and with the ultrasound power of 128 W reduces the time to establish equilibrium to 30 minutes and the number of extraction stages to three.If these parameters are observed the yield of capsaicin exceeds 99%, and the total extraction time is 2.5 hours, which makes it possible to choose extraction as a method for preparing samples of hot pepper for analyzing capsaicin by high performance liquid chromatography.
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Keywords: food safety; biological active substances; extraction; hot pepper; capsaicin; maceration; extraction.
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