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June 2017 (published: 27.06.2017)
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Improvement of pectin production technology from apples
Mikhail Yu. Kukin
The influence of hydrolyzing agent type, the hydrolysis duration of apple pomace, the evaporation regimes of the pectin-containing solution, the precipitation with ethyl alcohol and the pectin drying on the yield and the quality indicators of the finished product are studied. The goal is to develop a competitive domestic technology for the pectin production. The article analyzes currently available methods for the pectin production and the the technology based on acid hydrolysis of plant raw materials followed by pectin precipitation from the solution with ethyl alcohol as an object for improvement is chosen. It is proved that, taking into account the existing raw materials resources in Russia, it is expedient to use apples to produce highly esterified pectin. In comparison with other related articles, objective data on the pectin yield relative to its content in the feedstock and the relationship between the quality indicators of the finished product and its yield are presented. The maximum pectin yield while maintaining an average molecular weight of 130 kDa was chosen as an optimization criterion. The data on the effect of apple pomace hydrolysis duration with water, 0.03 N organic citric acid solution, and with 0.0125 N inorganic hydrochloric acid solution on the yield and average molecular weight of pectin are presented. Hydrolysis was carried out at the temperature of 98–100°C. To determine the pectin content in the feedstock and the final product yield a calcium-pectate method was used, and for the average molecular weight and degree of esterification — viscosimetric and titrimetric methods respectively. Gelling capacity was determined by the method based on the sedimentation of the gel with 65% solids mass fraction under the action of gravity. It is shown that the hydrolysis of apples should be carried out with 0.0125 N hydrochloric acid solution, the average molecular weight of 130 kDa, gelling capacity of more than 200°SAG and a relative yield of 75.2% being achieved within 90 minutes. Experimental data is well scaled and can be used in the development of industrial technology of pectin production from apples.
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Keywords: food production; pectin; food additive; apples; acid hydrolysis; yield; molecular weight; gelling capacity.
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