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June 2017 (published: 27.06.2017)
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Extraction of hypericin from St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.)
Rudometova N.V., Nikiforova T.A., Kim I.S.
The effect of ethanol content, the ratio ofraw material andextractant, particle size,and pre-maceration of plant raw materials on the kinetics and the multiplicity of hypericin extraction from Hypericum perforatum L. are investigated. St. John's wort isthe object of study.Extraction of naphthodianthrones from dry St. John's Wort was carried out at constant stirring and at theratio of plant material and the extractant from 20:1 to 60:1 at thetemperature of 20±2°C. Distilled water and aqueous ethanol were used as anextractant.The hypericin content was measured with Shimadzu UV-1800 spectrophotometer.70% ethanolaqueous solution is shown to be the most effective extractantsfor extracting naphthodianthrones, the equilibrium concentration not dependingon theplant material ratio,and the extractant and ethanol concentration.The pre-maceration of vegetable raw materials in water, which contributes to its uniform swelling and more intensive hypericin extraction,is presented. The minimum equilibrium time and the number of extractionstages are shownto beachieved with the extraction from raw materials with particle size of less than 1 mm. To providethe exhaustive extraction of naphthodianthrones the basic parameters of the extractionprocess arechosen. Extraction with 70% ethanol for 1 hour at theratio of plant material and the extractant of from 1:40 to 1:60 and particle size of less than 1 mm with pre-maceration of raw materials in water for hour at theratio of plant material and the extractant 1:10is recommended. Compliance with these parameters duringsix extraction stages provides an output of 99% hypericin.
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Keywords: food safety; biological active substances; extraction; St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.); hypericin
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