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september 2017 (published: 29.09.2017)
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Optical methods in the study of oil extracts and meals of vegetable raw materials
Liudmila V. Plotnikova, Ulyana Yu. Nechiporenko, Plotnikova N.A., Uspenskaya Maya Valerievna, Ishevskii A.L.
The article deals with the methods of refractometry, infrared and, for the first time applied, reflectance electron spectroscopy of the dry crushed medicinal and aromatic raw materials of different nature, thier oil extracts, and meals obtained in the process of their hot extraction by refined sunflower oil. To study the kinetics of extraction and extractive properties different part of the following plants were selected: St. John's wort, calamus, ginger, celandine, calendula, nettle (herb, flowers, and roots). During the experiments the mass of liquid was 50 ml, the one of grained (< 0.5 mm) raw materials – 5 g. Extraction was carried out for an hour by the use of water bath. The samples obtained were kept at the room temperature for six months with periodical agitation, the extract being centrifuged before measurements. It is showed that dry celandine, unlike the other kinds of the raw materials, adsorbs the lipid components of the oil extractant lowering its refractive index, fat content, iodine number, and the intensity of absorption bands in electronic spectra of lipid extracts. At the same time, in the spectrum of meal, compared with dry raw material, the intensity of these bands increases. The obtained data showed that for the purposeful creation of the oil extract and meal properties and for the efficiency of extraction-adsorption processes it is necessary experimental selection of pairs (oil-raw material), and the prospects of using reflectance electron spectroscopy method in the control and study of oil extraction processes from plant material. The lack of oil extraction for protein and carbohydrate components is confirmed by IR spectra of the dry raw material and its oil meal in all cases.
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Keywords: oil extracts; oil meal vegetable raw materials; infrared spectroscopy; electronic spectroscopy of reflection; refractometry
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