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2018 (published: 30.12.2018)
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The effect of ultrasound on microbiological fermentation
Berezina N.A., Komolikov A.S., Galagan T.V., Osipova G.A., Gavrilina V.A. , Nikitin I.A.
The positive effect of ultrasonic radiation on microbiological fermentation was determined by the example of the fermentation microflora of a semi-finished product. The influence of the impact force of ultrasound was determined using experimental emitters with a frequency of ultrasonic vibrations of 100 ± 6 kHz and 20 ± 2 kHz. The impact of the shock wave impact duration was analyzed at the stages of kneading dough, fermentation, and proofing dough pieces for 100 minutes throughout the technological cycle before baking, for 60 minutes during fermentation, for 30 minutes during proofing. The enzymatic processes occurring in the test semi-finished products were evaluated by the accumulation of yeast biomass and the amount of fermented sugars at the end of fermentation. The activity of yeast enzymatic systems was evaluated by the quality of bakery products (buns): the diameter and height of the product was determined, the shape of the products was evaluated as the ratio of the height of the product to its diameter, the volume of the product was calculated adopting its form is a cone. It was determined that the oscillation frequency of an ultrasonic wave of 100 kHz has a greater negative effect on the enzymatic fermentation processes in the semi-finished products tested than the oscillation frequency of 20 kHz. The difference is the greater, the longer the effect on the semi-finished product tested. The maximum positive effect of the ultrasonic wave on the microbiological fermentation is made by an ultrasonic wave of 20 ± 2 kHz for 30 minutes during the proofing of the dough tested. At the same time, the amount of fermented sugars in the semi-finished product increases by 29.4%, the accumulation of the bio-mass of yeast cells by 3.6 times, the volume of the finished product by 2.7 times, and dimensional stability varies slightly compared to the control sample. The taste properties of the buns from the tested semi-finished product subjected to ultrasonic treatment did not differ from the control sample. It is determined that the placement of ultrasound generators close to the experimental samples contributes to the formation of large cavities in them. To ensure uniform microbiological fermentation, the equipment for ultrasonic processing must cover and process the entire surface of the dough piece uniformly.
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Keywords: bakery production; influence of ultrasound; microbiological fermentation; dough preparation; bakery products.
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