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June 2016 (published: 22.06.2016)
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Peculiarities of physics-chemical and mechanical processes of making the filling for cooked sausages
Murashev S.V., Sherzody Sheroly
The article investigates physics-chemical and mechanical processes of meat structure formation for cooked sausages to minimize release of substandard products. Physics-chemical processes include such processes as the formation of the phase boundary surface, emulsification, adsorption, extraction and swelling of proteins, their dissolution and the formation of colloidal solutions, diffusion and osmotic processes etc. Mechanical processes include grindin, cutting, mixing, various forms of deformation, friction etc. The external factors that have a decisive influence on the formation of the cooked sausage filling structure – fine grinding of raw meat and a proper concentration of salt – are investigated in detail. It is shown that fine grinding of meat along with the action of salt solution having the necessary ion strength create favorable conditions for the extraction of myofibrillar proteins and the formation of the dispersion medium of meat. The required ionic strength of the solution occurs when salt is added in the amount of about 2% by weight of unsalted raw materials. At the same time, fine grinding allows not to activate interstitial enzymes for the destruction of protein structures. Moreover, the need of water binding and retention requires such a pH value at which activation of cathepsin interstitial enzymes does not occur. In addition, fine grinding results in another specific feature that distinguishes the cooked sausage from other types of meat products - highly dispersed fat uniformly distributed in an environment with high water content. As a result, the highest stability of minced meat for cooked sausages is obtained at the maximum possible extraction and solubility of myofibrillar proteins of the muscle tissue. The results obtained can be used to improve the quality and effectiveness of production technology for cooked meat products, while reducing unproductive losses.
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Keywords: fine grinding of meat, extraction of myofibrillar proteins, water binding capacity, pH of meat.
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