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March 2016 (published: 30.03.2016)
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Conservation of fruit and berry breeding material at ultralow temperatures
Pavlov A V, Porotnikov I.V., Verzhuk V.G., Vorobeykov G.A.
The influence of very low temperatures (minus 183–185°С) on the viability of an apple tree pollen, buds and cuttings of plum and cherry plum is analyzed. The effect of concentration of sucrose on pollen germination of Bolotovskii apple cultivars is shown: the optimum concentrations are 10 and 15% of sucrose. A factor of light has an impact on pollen germination of Bolotovsky apple cultivars: pollen germinated in the dark has 1.5–2 times higher viability than the one germinated in the light. After the cryopreservation by ultra-low temperature the viability of pollen was 36.4% which is 1.5 times higher than the one after low temperature storage (during germination in the dark when the sucrose concentration is 15%). The viability of plum cuttings after storage in nitrogen were in the range of from 76.7±3.3% to 46,6±3.8% depending on the variety. Grafted cuttings of plum after storage in nitrogen vapor showed about the same survival rate – from 60,0±4,3% to 45,2±3,1%. After pollination by canned pollen in all combinations of crossing the setting of black currant berries was 94.3–100%. In the article the influence of light on the apple pollen germination resulting in activity of pollen increased by half during germination in the dark is shown for the first time. This result is probably associated with a wider range of factors influencing the germination of pollen in the dark. The practical significance of the result is the intensification of the setting process for fruits and berries by more fertile pollen.
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Keywords: cryopreservation; pollen; cuttings; buds; fruit crops; apple; plum; cherry plum; currant.
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